Glossary of Terms
|ADJUSTMENT SCREW—Part of pressure regulator used to regulate gas pressure. It should only be set with a manometer or pressure gauge.|
AIR INLET—The designed port(s) of entry for combustion air in a controlled combustion, solid fuel burning appliance.
AIR INLET CONTROL-The means by which the amount of air entering the air inlet is regulated. Also referred to as air control.
AIR SUPPLY—Broadly, the air that is supplied to the firebox of the solid fuel burning appliance.
AIRWASH—A built-in system in many new stoves that keeps the door glass clean.
ANTHRACITE COAL—Hard coal, with high carbon and low volatile matter (gas and vapor) content.
APPLIANCE—A solid fuel burning stove, fireplace, furnace, boiler, water heater, or cookstove.
APPLIANCE REGULATOR—The appliance component, usually part of the combination valve, that maintains constant gas pressure.
APPLIANCE TO FLUE—Means of venting a solid fuel appliance (including fireplace inserts) into masonry fireplace chimneys; the stainless steel connector passes from the appliance to the first fire clay flue liner. Also referred to as direct connection.
ARCH—Curved structural support across the top of an opening.
ASH—Noncombustible solid by product of solid fuel combustion.
ASH DRAWER—Receptacle beneath the combustion chamber that catches and contains ashes until removal.
BAFFLE—An obstructing device or partition in a solid fuel appliance, used to direct air add heat.
BAFFLE PLATE—A partition inside an appliance to control the flow of direction of combustion air, flames, or flue gases.
BEARING WALL—Wall that supports part of the building weight above it in addition to its own weight. Opposed to a non bearing wall.
BOILER, HOT WATER—Central heating appliance for heating water and circulating steam or hot water to the house through pipes.
BTU OR BRITISH THERMAL UNIT—A unit for measuring energy, equal to the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.
BURN RATE—Combustion rate, usually expressed in pounds of fuel consumed per hour.
CARBON MONOXIDE—A toxic, combustible gas formed in incomplete combustion.
CAST IRON STOVE—A material used in many stoves. Iron is heated to a liquid form and poured into molds, usually with decorative details.
CHIMNEY—A portion of the venting system, through which flue gases are vented to the outdoors and by which penetrated combustible surfaces are protected; a primarily vertical shaft enclosing at least one flue, the design of which results in a natural draft.
CHIMNEY LINER—Usually a high temperature clay round or rectangular sleeve lining the interior of masonry chimneys. Although not recognized by many building codes, other materials such as stainless steel stovepipe and enameled porcelain coated steel industrial chimneys can be used as liners.
CLEARANCES—Minimum distance, composed only of an air space, which must be maintained between a heat source such as an appliance or vent and combustible surfaces.
COMBUSTIBLES—(as applied to walls, floors and ceilings in the context of wood heater clearances for safety). Constructed of or surfaced with wood, paper, natural- or synthetic fiber cloth, plastic or other material which will ignite and burn, whether flame proofed or not and whether plastered or unplastered. Combustibility is a relative concept. This definition is adapted from the definition in NFPA booklet glossary of terms relating to heat-producing appliances.
COMBUSTION CHAMBER—Area where mixing of combustion air and fuel occurs. Includes burn pot, refractory panels, and a door with glass.
CONVECTION—The transmission of heat by the circulation of a fluid (air or water) caused by differences in temperature (and therefore density).
CREOSOTE—Chimney and stove pipe deposits originating as condensed wood smoke (including vapors, tar and soot). Creosote is often initially liquid, but may dry or pyrolyze to a flaky or solid form. Smoldering wood (or coal) is the main source of creosote.
DAMPER—A valve, usually a moveable or rotatable plate, for controlling the flow of air or smoke and draft.
DRAFT—The difference in air pressure at the same elevation between the inside and the outside of a chimney, chimney connector, or appliance. The term draft is also sometimes used to denote the rate of combustion air flow into a fuel-burning appliance, or the rate of flue gas flow.
EFFICIENCY—The percentage of heat that goes into the room instead of up the chimney. 70-80% efficiency is optimal.
EMISSIONS—Unburned gases and smoke left after combustion.
ENAMEL—A permanent baked on heat-resistant, glossy, colored finish used on the outside of a cast iron stove.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY—The percentage of the total energy content of the fuel consumed that becomes useful heat in the house.
EXCESS AIR—Air in the firebox or fire chamber of a solid fuel appliance that is not used in combustion reactions (and exhausts through the venting system).
EXPANSION JOINT—Joint or separation made between different materials that have different expansion rates, as between a concrete floor and a column base or wall. A filler strip is placed in the joint. The term is used in relation to brick building units.
FIREBRICK—Brick capable of withstanding high temperatures, such as in stoves, furnaces and boilers. Different types of firebrick have different temperature limits.
FIRECLAY—A kind of clay capable of withstanding high temperatures while maintaining its original shape and size; fire clay products are resistant to corrosion, softening, or cracking. NFPA recommends that fire clay chimney flue liners resist corrosion, softening, or cracking from flue gases at temperatures up to 1800 degrees F. Used for flue liners for masonry chimneys.
FIREPLACE—An enclosure, open in the front for burning fuel. Solid fuel fireplaces may contain and vent gas log sets or fireplace inserts. Gas fireplaces are metal appliances open in the front and containing artificial log sets.
FIREPLACE INSERT—Solid fuel appliance designed to be installed partially or fully in the firebox of a masonry fireplace, and which vents into the fireplace chimney by means of full relining or appliance to flue methods.
FIREPLACE STOVE—A free-standing solid fuel burning room heating appliance operated either with its fire chamber open or closed to the room. NFPA and most codes use the term room heater-fireplace stove combination for a fireplace stove, and use the term fireplace stove to designate a unit without doors, that has its fire chamber always open to the room.
FIRESTOP—A noncombustible barrier, often metal, placed to span the air space between the outer walls of chimneys and surrounding combustibles; serves to resist the spread of fire between floors of a structure.
FLAGSTONE—A natural flat stone used in walkways and fireplaces. One stone is a flag.
FLASHING—Sheet metal or plastic used at breaks in a abuilding where water might leak in. Flashing is run under the building material to create a barrier.
FLUE—The passageway in a chimney for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere
FLUE COLLAR—The part of the solid fuel appliance which accepts the chimney connector. The flue collar diameter or dimension is designed by the appliance manufacturer to adequately accommodate the flow of gases out of the appliances.
FLUE GASES—The gases in an operating venting system, consisting of combustion products plus whatever air is mixed with them. Essentially synonymous with smoke and stack gases.
FLUE LINER—Usually a high temperature clay (fireclay) round or rectangular sleeve lining the interior of masonry chimneys. Although not recognized by many building codes, other materials such as FLY ASH—Ash that goes up the chimney, as opposed to ash that remains in the fuel burning appliance.
FREESTANDING STOVE—Heating appliance normally on legs or a pedestal that occupies an area roughly equal to that of an easy chair.
GRATE—A metal plate with engineered holes or a framework of metal bars used to hold fuel in the burn pot and to allow ashes to drop through to the ash drawer.
GROUT—Mortar of pouring consistency used to fill masonry voids in building units or to fill between masonry walls. A liquid mortar. Made of portland cement, lime, aggregates, and water.
HEARTH—The floor of the firebox, most commonly used in reference to fireplaces. More generally, the foundation upon which fires for aesthetic and heating purposes are built. Differs from floor protection.
HEAT OUTPUT—The amount of usable heat produced by a heating appliance; expressed in btu (for solid fuel and most conventional fuel appliances) or watts per hour.
INCREASER—Chimney connector component which permits the transition from smaller to larger connector, thimble, liner or chimney.
INSULATING BRICK—Low density (high porosity), low thermal conductivity firebrick intended for use in kilns and furnaces to insulate them, reducing heat losses. Its conductivity and its heat storage capacity are both 1/5 to 1/3 that of hard firebrick.
KINDLING—Thin, dry wood used to start a fire.
MANTEL—Shelf over and above the fireplace opening. Stone, brick or wood may be used.
MANUFACTURERS INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS—Instructions and recommendations for proper assembly, adjustment, and installation of listed equipment.
MASONRY CHIMNEY—Chimney constructed on site of masonry and fire clay materials; construction requirements specified by code. Also refers to existing masonry chimneys of various constructions.
MOISTURE CONTENT—The percentage of the fuels weight that is water in comparison to the total weight of the water and wood in the wet method; in comparison to the weight of the oven dried fuel in the dry basis.
PRIMARY AIR—Combustion air directed to the firebox where the fuel is located; supports all stages of combustion.
PRIMARY COMBUSTION—The burning of solid wood and some of the combustible gases, which takes place in that portion of the appliance where the wood is. The distinction between primary and secondary combustion is somewhat artificial.
REDUCER—Chimney connector component which permits the transition from a larger to smaller diameter chimney connector, thimble, liner or chimney. Not normally recommended because of potential smoke spillage and poor appliance performance.
REFRACTORY—Any solid ceramic material suitable as a structural or protective material at high temperatures in a corrosive environment.
RELINE—An inner chimney made of metal or refractory material, usually with added insulation, that fits inside an existing chimney. Usually installed for improved safety and efficiency when a chimney is inappropriate or oversized for a heating stove.
SEASONED WOOD—Refers to fuel wood that has been allowed to dry before burning. Seasoning generally takes six to 12 months. Woods burns much easier when its moisture content has been reduced. Freshly cut wood contains over 20 percent water.
SECONDARY AIR—Combustion air directed downstream of the primary combustion zone (but still in the appliance) to support the combustion of remaining combustible gases; does not directly influence the rate of primary combustion.
SECONDARY COMBUSTION—The burning of the combustible gases and smoke which are not burned in primary combustion.
SOLID FUEL—Wood, coal, and other similar organic materials in various forms (e.g. chunk wood, pressed logs, wood pellets, wood chips, paper, processed coal, coke, peat, charcoal)
SOOT—Soft, black or brown velvety deposit of carbon particles inside appliances, chimneys, and connectors. Soot originates in oxygen-poor flames.
STOVE—Wood or coal stove. A freestanding solid fuel burning, room heating appliance intended to be operated with its door(s) closed, i.e. with a closed fire chamber. NFPA and most codes use the term solid fuel room heater for stoves.
STOVE PIPE—or smoke pipe. Single-walled light gage (roughly .019 to .024 inches thick) metal pipe generally intended for use as chimney connectors.
TEE—Chimney connector or factory-built chimney component which provides a 90 degree turn in the venting system; has a removable plate at the bottom for inspection and chimney cleaning convenience.
THERM—100,000 British Thermal Units (BTUs)
VENTING SYSTEM—A continuous open passageway from the flue collar or draft hood of the appliance to the outside atmosphere for the purpose of removing flue gases.